The first temple to have this symbol was the Salt Lake Temple. The west central tower lacks windows on the top story allowing for the big dipper sculpture. While there are other stars depicted on the temple, this sculpture uses them differently. The stars are six sided instead of the other stars which are five sided. They are also arranged in a group. On the Salt Lake Temple the big dipper stars point towards the actual north star.
The big dipper's symbolism can be understood in several ways.
1. The big dipper points to the north star, Polaris, the only star that doesn't move during the night. As the big dipper is used to find the north star, the temple is used to help us find God who doesn't change.
2. As the big dipper helps us find our way, the temple guides us through life and to eternity.
3. The symbol can represent progression if used in conjunction with other temple symbols. The temple lowest stones are the earth stones (originally to show the earth rotating through hours of a day). The next stones are moon stones going through phases which can represent days and months. Next up are the sun stones. The sun goes through seasons so it could represent seasons and years. The big dipper sculpture is higher on the temple and hints at Polaris, the star that doesn't change. It represents infinity, eternity. So as we go up we get hours, days, months, years, and finally eternity. As we progress in the temple we approach the infinite and eternal.
4. The eternity symbolism can also represent going from a temporal, mortal state to an eternal, immortal, resurrected state.
5. The big dipper as a guiding constellation can be seen as a symbol for the Holy Ghost which guides us through life.The next temple (I know of) to display the big dipper is the Washington D.C. Temple. This temple is a stylized version of the Salt Lake Temple. The symbolic sculptures from the Salt Lake Temple were depicted in the detailed doors of the Washington D.C. Temple. Among the panels is one on the bottom right corner showing the big dipper and the north star (over the Seal of Melchizedek). Because this temple also depicts the north star, it hints that the symbol is supposed to be understood with the north star. I'm glad they added this symbolism to the Washington D.C. Temple.
The Anchorage Alaska Temple also contains the big dipper symbol. The Alaska state flag is just the big dipper and north star. So including the big dipper symbol from the Salt Lake Temple was one way to make this temple fit in locally. The stars are eight sided on this temple and are carved into the stone rather than projecting out of it. You can see the big dipper and north star carvings in this photo. You will need to look closely. The north star is on the left top and is larger than the other stars. The next star is a little more than half way down the wall on the other side of the first window. It may take you a minute, but you can find all the stars. The last two are at the top of the wall with one between the last two windows and the other to the right of the last window. I think the carvings are on the celestial room wall, but I may be wrong.
The Winter Quarters Nebraska Temple also includes the big dipper and north star (see this Church News article). They are in the stained glass in one of the dressing rooms and are positioned as they would have been on April 6, 1830, the day The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized. Here is a photo showing stars, although I don't think this is the big dipper one (it has too few stars).
I don't know of any other temples that have used the big dipper symbol. If you know of any others please comment. Comment also and let us know what you think of this symbol and how it is used on temples. I am glad that the church has used this symbol on more than just the Salt Lake Temple. I hope it continues to be used from time to time.