The first Mormon temples didn't have murals. The Kirtland Ohio Temple was mainly a place for revelation to be received and heavenly messengers (angels and Jesus Christ) to come and give instruction and priesthood keys necessary for future temple ordinances. The Nauvoo Temple was the first temple where the endowment ceremony was performed. In this temple, endowments were performed in the attic level partly because as the structure was built members didn't know the endowment was going to be performed there. To administer the endowment, the room on the top floor was divided using curtains. Each divided off room section was then used to represent the various parts of life - creation, the Garden of Eden, the current world, the terrestrial world, and finally the Celestial Kingdom of God (Heaven). Potted plants may have been used to give the rooms some connection to what they were to represent. The rebuilt Nauvoo Temple contains murals as a tribute to what the early saints may have eventually added if they had stayed in Nauvoo.
When the saints arrived in Utah they started building temples. While these were under construction, the endowment was given in several places. The council house (now across the street from the Utah State Capitol Building) was used with curtains dividing a room into endowment areas. Then the Endowment House was built on temple square and it included potted plants and murals in various rooms.
The next temple built was the St. George Utah Temple in 1877. It lacked endowment rooms. One of the two assembly rooms was simply divided into the various rooms for the presentation of the endowment. In 1881 proper walls were added and murals were painted.
|St. George Utah Temple Garden Room|
|St. George Utah Temple World Room|
|Original Logan Temple Creation Room|
|Original Logan Temple Garden Room|
|Original Logan Temple World Room|
|Original Logan Temple Terrestrial Room|
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This is an addition to the original post:
The Logan Temple original celestial room also had murals painted on either end of the room. One was of Joseph Smith going to the Hill Cumorah to receive the gold plates the Book of Mormon was translated from. The other mural shows Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery receiving the Aaronic Priesthood from John the Baptist. These murals were added to the room in 1929. (See The Logan Temple The First 100 Years by Nolan P. Olsen). They weren't wrap around murals, and were essentially just huge paintings, but they are still murals and added to this temple.
|Original Logan Temple Celestial Room With Mural|